M.Sc. Alexander Hermans
Room 129
Phone: +49 241 80 20 772
Fax: +49 241 80 22731
Office hours: Try and drop by or send some mails for further details.


Tobias Pohlen, Alexander Hermans, Markus Mathias, Bastian Leibe
Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR'17) Oral

Semantic image segmentation is an essential component of modern autonomous driving systems, as an accurate understanding of the surrounding scene is crucial to navigation and action planning. Current state-of-the-art approaches in semantic image segmentation rely on pre-trained networks that were initially developed for classifying images as a whole. While these networks exhibit outstanding recognition performance (i.e., what is visible?), they lack localization accuracy (i.e., where precisely is something located?). Therefore, additional processing steps have to be performed in order to obtain pixel-accurate segmentation masks at the full image resolution. To alleviate this problem we propose a novel ResNet-like architecture that exhibits strong localization and recognition performance. We combine multi-scale context with pixel-level accuracy by using two processing streams within our network: One stream carries information at the full image resolution, enabling precise adherence to segment boundaries. The other stream undergoes a sequence of pooling operations to obtain robust features for recognition. The two streams are coupled at the full image resolution using residuals. Without additional processing steps and without pre-training, our approach achieves an intersection-over-union score of 71.8% on the Cityscapes dataset.

» Show BibTeX
@inproceedings{Pohlen2017CVPR, title = {{Full-Resolution Residual Networks for Semantic Segmentation in Street Scenes}}, author = {Pohlen, Tobias and Hermans, Alexander and Mathias, Markus and Leibe, Bastian}, booktitle = {{IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR'17)}}, year = {2017} }

Theodora Kontogianni, Francis Engelmann, Alexander Hermans, Bastian Leibe
IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV'17) 3DRMS Workshop

Deep learning approaches have made tremendous progress in the field of semantic segmentation over the past few years. However, most current approaches operate in the 2D image space. Direct semantic segmentation of unstructured 3D point clouds is still an open research problem. The recently proposed PointNet architecture presents an interesting step ahead in that it can operate on unstructured point clouds, achieving decent segmentation results. However, it subdivides the input points into a grid of blocks and processes each such block individually. In this paper, we investigate the question how such an architecture can be extended to incorporate larger-scale spatial context. We build upon PointNet and propose two extensions that enlarge the receptive field over the 3D scene. We evaluate the proposed strategies on challenging indoor and outdoor datasets and show improved results in both scenarios.

» Show BibTeX
@inproceedings{3dsemseg_ICCVW17, author = {Francis Engelmann and Theodora Kontogianni and Alexander Hermans and Bastian Leibe}, title = {Exploring Spatial Context for 3D Semantic Segmentation of Point Clouds}, booktitle = {{IEEE} International Conference on Computer Vision, 3DRMS Workshop, {ICCV}}, year = {2017} }

Lucas Beyer, Alexander Hermans, Bastian Leibe
IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (RA-L) and IEEE Int. Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA'17)

TL;DR: Collected & annotated laser detection dataset. Use window around each point to cast vote on detection center.

We introduce the DROW detector, a deep learning based detector for 2D range data. Laser scanners are lighting invariant, provide accurate range data, and typically cover a large field of view, making them interesting sensors for robotics applications. So far, research on detection in laser range data has been dominated by hand-crafted features and boosted classifiers, potentially losing performance due to suboptimal design choices. We propose a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) based detector for this task. We show how to effectively apply CNNs for detection in 2D range data, and propose a depth preprocessing step and voting scheme that significantly improve CNN performance. We demonstrate our approach on wheelchairs and walkers, obtaining state of the art detection results. Apart from the training data, none of our design choices limits the detector to these two classes, though. We provide a ROS node for our detector and release our dataset containing 464k laser scans, out of which 24k were annotated.

» Show BibTeX
@article{BeyerHermans2016RAL, title = {{DROW: Real-Time Deep Learning based Wheelchair Detection in 2D Range Data}}, author = {Beyer*, Lucas and Hermans*, Alexander and Leibe, Bastian}, journal = {{IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (RA-L)}}, year = {2016} }

Alexander Hermans, Lucas Beyer, Bastian Leibe

TL;DR: Use triplet loss, hard-mining inside mini-batch performs great, is similar to offline semi-hard mining but much more efficient.

In the past few years, the field of computer vision has gone through a revolution fueled mainly by the advent of large datasets and the adoption of deep convolutional neural networks for end-to-end learning. The person re-identification subfield is no exception to this, thanks to the notable publication of the Market-1501 and MARS datasets and several strong deep learning approaches. Unfortunately, a prevailing belief in the community seems to be that the triplet loss is inferior to using surrogate losses (classification, verification) followed by a separate metric learning step. We show that, for models trained from scratch as well as pretrained ones, using a variant of the triplet loss to perform end-to-end deep metric learning outperforms any other published method by a large margin.

» Show BibTeX
@article{HermansBeyer2017Arxiv, title = {{In Defense of the Triplet Loss for Person Re-Identification}}, author = {Hermans*, Alexander and Beyer*, Lucas and Leibe, Bastian}, journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.07737}, year = {2017} }

Aljoša Ošep, Alexander Hermans, Francis Engelmann, Dirk Klostermann, Markus Mathias, Bastian Leibe
IEEE Int. Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA'16)

Most vision based systems for object tracking in urban environments focus on a limited number of important object categories such as cars or pedestrians, for which powerful detectors are available. However, practical driving scenarios contain many additional objects of interest, for which suitable detectors either do not yet exist or would be cumbersome to obtain. In this paper we propose a more general tracking approach which does not follow the often used tracking-by- detection principle. Instead, we investigate how far we can get by tracking unknown, generic objects in challenging street scenes. As such, we do not restrict ourselves to only tracking the most common categories, but are able to handle a large variety of static and moving objects. We evaluate our approach on the KITTI dataset and show competitive results for the annotated classes, even though we are not restricted to them.

» Show BibTeX
@inproceedings{Osep16ICRA, title={Multi-Scale Object Candidates for Generic Object Tracking in Street Scenes}, author={O\v{s}ep, Aljo\v{s}a and Hermans, Alexander and Engelmann, Francis and Klostermann, Dirk and and Mathias, Markus and Leibe, Bastian}, booktitle={ICRA}, year={2016} }

Nick Hawes, Chris Burbridge, Ferdian Jovan, Lars Kunze, Bruno Lacerda, Lenka Mudrová, Jay Young, Jeremy Wyatt, Denise Hebesberger, Tobias Körtner, Rares Ambrus, Nils Bore, John Folkesson, Patric Jensfelt, Lucas Beyer, Alexander Hermans, Bastian Leibe, Aitor Aldoma, Thomas Fäulhammer, Michael Zillich, Markus Vincze, Muhannad Al-Omari, Eris Chinellato, Paul Duckworth, Yiannis Gatsoulis, David Hogg, Anthony Cohn, Christian Dondrup, Jaime Fentanes, Tomas Krajník, João Santos, Tom Duckett, Marc Hanheide
IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine

Thanks to the efforts of our community, autonomous robots are becoming capable of ever more complex and impressive feats. There is also an increasing demand for, perhaps even an expectation of, autonomous capabilities from end-users. However, much research into autonomous robots rarely makes it past the stage of a demonstration or experimental system in a controlled environment. If we don't confront the challenges presented by the complexity and dynamics of real end-user environments, we run the risk of our research becoming irrelevant or ignored by the industries who will ultimately drive its uptake. In the STRANDS project we are tackling this challenge head-on. We are creating novel autonomous systems, integrating state-of-the-art research in artificial intelligence and robotics into robust mobile service robots, and deploying these systems for long-term installations in security and care environments. To date, over four deployments, our robots have been operational for a combined duration of 2545 hours (or a little over 106 days), covering 116km while autonomously performing end-user defined tasks. In this article we present an overview of the motivation and approach of the STRANDS project, describe the technology we use to enable long, robust autonomous runs in challenging environments, and describe how our robots are able to use these long runs to improve their own performance through various forms of learning.

David Stutz, Alexander Hermans, Bastian Leibe

Superpixels group perceptually similar pixels to create visually meaningful entities while heavily reducing the number of primitives. As of these properties, superpixel algorithms have received much attention since their naming in 2003. By today, publicly available and well-understood superpixel algorithms have turned into standard tools in low-level vision. As such, and due to their quick adoption in a wide range of applications, appropriate benchmarks are crucial for algorithm selection and comparison. Until now, the rapidly growing number of algorithms as well as varying experimental setups hindered the development of a unifying benchmark. We present a comprehensive evaluation of 28 state-of-the-art superpixel algorithms utilizing a benchmark focussing on fair comparison and designed to provide new and relevant insights. To this end, we explicitly discuss parameter optimization and the importance of strictly enforcing connectivity. Furthermore, by extending well-known metrics, we are able to summarize algorithm performance independent of the number of generated superpixels, thereby overcoming a major limitation of available benchmarks. Furthermore, we discuss runtime, robustness against noise, blur and affine transformations, implementation details as well as aspects of visual quality. Finally, we present an overall ranking of superpixel algorithms which redefines the state-of-the-art and enables researchers to easily select appropriate algorithms and the corresponding implementations which themselves are made publicly available as part of our benchmark at

» Show BibTeX
@article{Stutz2016Arxiv, title = {{Superpixels: An Evaluation of the State-of-the-Art}}, author = {David Stutz and Alexander Hermans and Bastian Leibe}, journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1612.01601}, year = {2016} }

Lucas Beyer, Alexander Hermans, Bastian Leibe
German Conference on Pattern Recognition (GCPR'15) - Oral

TL;DR: By doing the obvious thing of encoding an angle φ as (cos φ, sin φ), we can do cool things and simplify data labeling requirements.

While head pose estimation has been studied for some time, continuous head pose estimation is still an open problem. Most approaches either cannot deal with the periodicity of angular data or require very fine-grained regression labels. We introduce biternion nets, a CNN-based approach that can be trained on very coarse regression labels and still estimate fully continuous 360° head poses. We show state-of-the-art results on several publicly available datasets. Finally, we demonstrate how easy it is to record and annotate a new dataset with coarse orientation labels in order to obtain continuous head pose estimates using our biternion nets.

» Show BibTeX
@inproceedings{Beyer2015BiternionNets, author = {Lucas Beyer and Alexander Hermans and Bastian Leibe}, title = {Biternion Nets: Continuous Head Pose Regression from Discrete Training Labels}, booktitle = {Pattern Recognition}, publisher = {Springer}, series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science}, volume = {9358}, pages = {157-168}, year = {2015}, isbn = {978-3-319-24946-9}, doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-24947-6_13}, ee = {}, }

Alexander Hermans, Georgios Floros, Bastian Leibe
International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA'14) - Best Vision Paper

Dense semantic segmentation of 3D point clouds is a challenging task. Many approaches deal with 2D semantic segmentation and can obtain impressive results. With the availability of cheap RGB-D sensors the field of indoor semantic segmentation has seen a lot of progress. Still it remains unclear how to deal with 3D semantic segmentation in the best way. We propose a novel 2D-3D label transfer based on Bayesian updates and dense pairwise 3D Conditional Random Fields. This approach allows us to use 2D semantic segmentations to create a consistent 3D semantic reconstruction of indoor scenes. To this end, we also propose a fast 2D semantic segmentation approach based on Randomized Decision Forests. Furthermore, we show that it is not needed to obtain a semantic segmentation for every frame in a sequence in order to create accurate semantic 3D reconstructions. We evaluate our approach on both NYU Depth datasets and show that we can obtain a significant speed-up compared to other methods.

» Show BibTeX
@inproceedings{Hermans14ICRA, author = {Alexander Hermans and Georgios Floros and Bastian Leibe}, title = {{Dense 3D Semantic Mapping of Indoor Scenes from RGB-D Images}}, booktitle = {International Conference on Robotics and Automation}, year = {2014} }

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