M.Sc. Jonas Schult
Room 122
Phone: +49 241 80 20 765
Fax: +49 241 80 22 731
Email: schult (at) vision.rwth-aachen.de

[Personal Website]   [GitHub]   [Google Scholar]


ControlRoom3D: Room Generation using Semantic Proxies

Jonas Schult, Sam Tsai, Lukas Höllein, Bichen Wu, Jialiang Wang, Chih-Yao Ma, Kunpeng Li, Xiaofang Wang, Felix Wimbauer, Zijian He, Peizhao Zhang, Bastian Leibe, Peter Vajda, Ji Hou
IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 2024

Manually creating 3D environments for AR/VR applications is a complex process requiring expert knowledge in 3D modeling software. Pioneering works facilitate this process by generating room meshes conditioned on textual style descriptions. Yet, many of these automatically generated 3D meshes do not adhere to typical room layouts, compromising their plausibility, e.g., by placing several beds in one bedroom. To address these challenges, we present ControlRoom3D, a novel method to generate high-quality room meshes. Central to our approach is a user-defined 3D semantic proxy room that outlines a rough room layout based on semantic bounding boxes and a textual description of the overall room style. Our key insight is that when rendered to 2D, this 3D representation provides valuable geometric and semantic information to control powerful 2D models to generate 3D consistent textures and geometry that aligns well with the proxy room. Backed up by an extensive study including quantitative metrics and qualitative user evaluations, our method generates diverse and globally plausible 3D room meshes, thus empowering users to design 3D rooms effortlessly without specialized knowledge.

» Show BibTeX

author = {Schult, Jonas and Tsai, Sam and H\"ollein, Lukas and Wu, Bichen and Wang, Jialiang and Ma, Chih-Yao and Li, Kunpeng and Wang, Xiaofang and Wimbauer, Felix and He, Zijian and Zhang, Peizhao and Leibe, Bastian and Vajda, Peter and Hou, Ji},
title = {ControlRoom3D: Room Generation using Semantic Proxy Rooms},
booktitle = {IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)},
year = {2024},

Mask4Former: Mask Transformer for 4D Panoptic Segmentation

Kadir Yilmaz, Jonas Schult, Alexey Nekrasov, Bastian Leibe
International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2024.

Accurately perceiving and tracking instances over time is essential for the decision-making processes of autonomous agents interacting safely in dynamic environments. With this intention, we propose Mask4Former for the challenging task of 4D panoptic segmentation of LiDAR point clouds.

Mask4Former is the first transformer-based approach unifying semantic instance segmentation and tracking of sparse and irregular sequences of 3D point clouds into a single joint model. Our model directly predicts semantic instances and their temporal associations without relying on hand-crafted non-learned association strategies such as probabilistic clustering or voting-based center prediction. Instead, Mask4Former introduces spatio-temporal instance queries that encode the semantic and geometric properties of each semantic tracklet in the sequence.

In an in-depth study, we find that promoting spatially compact instance predictions is critical as spatio-temporal instance queries tend to merge multiple semantically similar instances, even if they are spatially distant. To this end, we regress 6-DOF bounding box parameters from spatio-temporal instance queries, which are used as an auxiliary task to foster spatially compact predictions.

Mask4Former achieves a new state-of-the-art on the SemanticKITTI test set with a score of 68.4 LSTQ.

» Show BibTeX

title = {{Mask4Former: Mask Transformer for 4D Panoptic Segmentation}},
author = {Yilmaz, Kadir and Schult, Jonas and Nekrasov, Alexey and Leibe, Bastian},
booktitle = {International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)},
year = {2024}

AGILE3D: Attention Guided Interactive Multi-object 3D Segmentation

Yuanwen Yue, Sabarinath Mahadevan, Jonas Schult, Francis Engelmann, Bastian Leibe, Konrad Schindler, Theodora Kontogianni
International Conference on Learning Representations (ICLR) 2024

During interactive segmentation, a model and a user work together to delineate objects of interest in a 3D point cloud. In an iterative process, the model assigns each data point to an object (or the background), while the user corrects errors in the resulting segmentation and feeds them back into the model. The current best practice formulates the problem as binary classification and segments objects one at a time. The model expects the user to provide positive clicks to indicate regions wrongly assigned to the background and negative clicks on regions wrongly assigned to the object. Sequentially visiting objects is wasteful since it disregards synergies between objects: a positive click for a given object can, by definition, serve as a negative click for nearby objects. Moreover, a direct competition between adjacent objects can speed up the identification of their common boundary. We introduce AGILE3D, an efficient, attention-based model that (1) supports simultaneous segmentation of multiple 3D objects, (2) yields more accurate segmentation masks with fewer user clicks, and (3) offers faster inference. Our core idea is to encode user clicks as spatial-temporal queries and enable explicit interactions between click queries as well as between them and the 3D scene through a click attention module. Every time new clicks are added, we only need to run a lightweight decoder that produces updated segmentation masks. In experiments with four different 3D point cloud datasets, AGILE3D sets a new state-of-the-art. Moreover, we also verify its practicality in real-world setups with real user studies.

» Show BibTeX

title = {{AGILE3D: Attention Guided Interactive Multi-object 3D Segmentation}},
author = {Yue, Yuanwen and Mahadevan, Sabarinath and Schult, Jonas and Engelmann, Francis and Leibe, Bastian and Schindler, Konrad and Kontogianni, Theodora},
booktitle = {International Conference on Learning Representations (ICLR)},
year = {2024}

3D Segmentation of Humans in Point Clouds with Synthetic Data

Ayça Takmaz*, Jonas Schult*, Irem Kaftan, Mertcan Akçay, Bastian Leibe, Robert Sumner, Francis Engelmann, Siyu Tang
International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) 2023

Segmenting humans in 3D indoor scenes has become increasingly important with the rise of human-centered robotics and AR/VR applications. In this direction, we explore the tasks of 3D human semantic-, instance- and multi-human body-part segmentation. Few works have attempted to directly segment humans in point clouds (or depth maps), which is largely due to the lack of training data on humans interacting with 3D scenes. We address this challenge and propose a framework for synthesizing virtual humans in realistic 3D scenes. Synthetic point cloud data is attractive since the domain gap between real and synthetic depth is small compared to images. Our analysis of different training schemes using a combination of synthetic and realistic data shows that synthetic data for pre-training improves performance in a wide variety of segmentation tasks and models. We further propose the first end-to-end model for 3D multi-human body-part segmentation, called Human3D, that performs all the above segmentation tasks in a unified manner. Remarkably, Human3D even outperforms previous task-specific state-of-the-art methods. Finally, we manually annotate humans in test scenes from EgoBody to compare the proposed training schemes and segmentation models.

» Show BibTeX

title = {{3D Segmentation of Humans in Point Clouds with Synthetic Data}},
author = {Takmaz, Ay\c{c}a and Schult, Jonas and Kaftan, Irem and Ak\c{c}ay, Mertcan
and Leibe, Bastian and Sumner, Robert and Engelmann, Francis and Tang, Siyu},
booktitle = {{International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV)}},
year = {2023}

Mask3D for 3D Semantic Instance Segmentation

Jonas Schult, Francis Engelmann, Alexander Hermans, Or Litany, Siyu Tang, Bastian Leibe
International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) 2023

Modern 3D semantic instance segmentation approaches predominantly rely on specialized voting mechanisms followed by carefully designed geometric clustering techniques. Building on the successes of recent Transformer-based methods for object detection and image segmentation, we propose the first Transformer-based approach for 3D semantic instance segmentation. We show that we can leverage generic Transformer building blocks to directly predict instance masks from 3D point clouds. In our model called Mask3D each object instance is represented as an instance query. Using Transformer decoders, the instance queries are learned by iteratively attending to point cloud features at multiple scales. Combined with point features, the instance queries directly yield all instance masks in parallel. Mask3D has several advantages over current state-of-the-art approaches, since it neither relies on (1) voting schemes which require hand-selected geometric properties (such as centers) nor (2) geometric grouping mechanisms requiring manually-tuned hyper-parameters (e.g. radii) and (3) enables a loss that directly optimizes instance masks. Mask3D sets a new state-of-the-art on ScanNet test (+6.2 mAP), S3DIS 6-fold (+10.1 mAP), STPLS3D (+11.2 mAP) and ScanNet200 test (+12.4 mAP).

» Show Videos
» Show BibTeX

title = {{Mask3D for 3D Semantic Instance Segmentation}},
author = {Schult, Jonas and Engelmann, Francis and Hermans, Alexander and Litany, Or and Tang, Siyu and Leibe, Bastian},
booktitle = {{International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)}},
year = {2023}

Point2Vec for Self-Supervised Representation Learning on Point Clouds

Karim Abou Zeid*, Jonas Schult*, Alexander Hermans, Bastian Leibe
DAGM German Conference on Pattern Recognition (GCPR) 2023

Recently, the self-supervised learning framework data2vec has shown inspiring performance for various modalities using a masked student-teacher approach. However, it remains open whether such a framework generalizes to the unique challenges of 3D point clouds.To answer this question, we extend data2vec to the point cloud domain and report encouraging results on several downstream tasks. In an in-depth analysis, we discover that the leakage of positional information reveals the overall object shape to the student even under heavy masking and thus hampers data2vec to learn strong representations for point clouds. We address this 3D-specific shortcoming by proposing point2vec, which unleashes the full potential of data2vec-like pre-training on point clouds. Our experiments show that point2vec outperforms other self-supervised methods on shape classification and few-shot learning on ModelNet40 and ScanObjectNN, while achieving competitive results on part segmentation on ShapeNetParts. These results suggest that the learned representations are strong and transferable, highlighting point2vec as a promising direction for self-supervised learning of point cloud representations.

» Show BibTeX

title={Point2Vec for Self-Supervised Representation Learning on Point Clouds},
author={Abou Zeid, Karim and Schult, Jonas and Hermans, Alexander and Leibe, Bastian},
journal={DAGM German Conference on Pattern Recognition (GCPR)},

M2F3D: Mask2Former for 3D Instance Segmentation

Jonas Schult, Alexander Hermans, Francis Engelmann, Siyu Tang, Otmar Hilliges, Bastian Leibe
Transformers for Vision Workshop at CVPR 2022 (Spotlight)

In this work, we show that the top performing Mask2Former approach for image-based segmentation tasks works surprisingly well when adapted to the 3D scene understanding domain. Current 3D semantic instance segmentation methods rely largely on predicting centers followed by clustering approaches and little progress has been made in applying transformer-based approaches to this task. We show that with small modifications to the Mask2Former approach for 2D, we can create a 3D instance segmentation approach, without the need for highly 3D specific components or carefully hand-engineered hyperparameters. Initial experiments with our M2F3D model on the ScanNet benchmark are very promising and sets a new state-of-the-art on ScanNet test (+0.4 mAP50).

Please see our extended work Mask3D: Mask Transformer for 3D Instance Segmentation accepted at ICRA 2023.
» Show Videos

Mix3D: Out-of-Context Data Augmentation for 3D Scenes

Alexey Nekrasov*, Jonas Schult*, Or Litany, Bastian Leibe, Francis Engelmann
International Conference on 3D Vision (3DV) 2021 (Oral)

Mix3D is a data augmentation technique for segmenting large-scale 3D scenes. Since scene context helps reasoning about object semantics, current works focus on models with large capacity and receptive fields that can fully capture the global context of an input 3D scene. However, strong contextual priors can have detrimental implications like mistaking a pedestrian crossing the street for a car. In this work, we focus on the importance of balancing global scene context and local geometry, with the goal of generalizing beyond the contextual priors in the training set. In particular, we propose a "mixing" technique which creates new training samples by combining two augmented scenes. By doing so, object instances are implicitly placed into novel out-of-context environments and therefore making it harder for models to rely on scene context alone, and instead infer semantics from local structure as well.

In the paper, we perform detailed analysis to understand the importance of global context, local structures and the effect of mixing scenes. In experiments, we show that models trained with Mix3D profit from a significant performance boost on indoor (ScanNet, S3DIS) and outdoor datasets (SemanticKITTI). Mix3D can be trivially used with any existing method, e.g., trained with Mix3D, MinkowskiNet outperforms all prior state-of-the-art methods by a significant margin on the ScanNet test benchmark 78.1 mIoU.

» Show BibTeX

title = {{Mix3D: Out-of-Context Data Augmentation for 3D Scenes}},
author = {Nekrasov, Alexey and Schult, Jonas and Or, Litany and Leibe, Bastian and Engelmann, Francis},
booktitle = {{International Conference on 3D Vision (3DV)}},
year = {2021}

DualConvMesh-Net: Joint Geodesic and Euclidean Convolutions on 3D Meshes

Jonas Schult*, Francis Engelmann*, Theodora Kontogianni, Bastian Leibe
IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 2020 (Oral)

We propose DualConvMesh-Nets (DCM-Net) a family of deep hierarchical convolutional networks over 3D geometric data that combines two types of convolutions. The first type, geodesic convolutions, defines the kernel weights over mesh surfaces or graphs. That is, the convolutional kernel weights are mapped to the local surface of a given mesh. The second type, Euclidean convolutions, is independent of any underlying mesh structure. The convolutional kernel is applied on a neighborhood obtained from a local affinity representation based on the Euclidean distance between 3D points. Intuitively, geodesic convolutions can easily separate objects that are spatially close but have disconnected surfaces, while Euclidean convolutions can represent interactions between nearby objects better, as they are oblivious to object surfaces. To realize a multi-resolution architecture, we borrow well-established mesh simplification methods from the geometry processing domain and adapt them to define mesh-preserving pooling and unpooling operations. We experimentally show that combining both types of convolutions in our architecture leads to significant performance gains for 3D semantic segmentation, and we report competitive results on three scene segmentation benchmarks.

» Show BibTeX

author = {Jonas Schult* and
Francis Engelmann* and
Theodora Kontogianni and
Bastian Leibe},
title = {{DualConvMesh-Net: Joint Geodesic and Euclidean Convolutions on 3D Meshes}},
booktitle = {{IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)}},
year = {2020}

3D-BEVIS: Birds-Eye-View Instance Segmentation

Cathrin Elich, Francis Engelmann, Jonas Schult, Theodora Kontogianni, Bastian Leibe
German Conference on Pattern Recognition (GCPR) 2019

Recent deep learning models achieve impressive results on 3D scene analysis tasks by operating directly on unstructured point clouds. A lot of progress was made in the field of object classification and semantic segmentation. However, the task of instance segmentation is less explored. In this work, we present 3D-BEVIS, a deep learning framework for 3D semantic instance segmentation on point clouds. Following the idea of previous proposal-free instance segmentation approaches, our model learns a feature embedding and groups the obtained feature space into semantic instances. Current point-based methods scale linearly with the number of points by processing local sub-parts of a scene individually. However, to perform instance segmentation by clustering, globally consistent features are required. Therefore, we propose to combine local point geometry with global context information from an intermediate bird's-eye view representation.

» Show BibTeX

title = {{3D-BEVIS: Birds-Eye-View Instance Segmentation}},
author = {Elich, Cathrin and Engelmann, Francis and Schult, Jonas and Kontogianni, Theodora and Leibe, Bastian},
booktitle = {{German Conference on Pattern Recognition (GCPR)}},
year = {2019}

Know What Your Neighbors Do: 3D Semantic Segmentation of Point Clouds

Francis Engelmann, Theodora Kontogianni, Jonas Schult, Bastian Leibe
IEEE European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV'18), GMDL Workshop

In this paper, we present a deep learning architecture which addresses the problem of 3D semantic segmentation of unstructured point clouds. Compared to previous work, we introduce grouping techniques which define point neighborhoods in the initial world space and the learned feature space. Neighborhoods are important as they allow to compute local or global point features depending on the spatial extend of the neighborhood. Additionally, we incorporate dedicated loss functions to further structure the learned point feature space: the pairwise distance loss and the centroid loss. We show how to apply these mechanisms to the task of 3D semantic segmentation of point clouds and report state-of-the-art performance on indoor and outdoor datasets.

» Show BibTeX

author = {Francis Engelmann and
Theodora Kontogianni and
Jonas Schult and
Bastian Leibe},
title = {Know What Your Neighbors Do: 3D Semantic Segmentation of Point Clouds},
booktitle = {{IEEE} European Conference on Computer Vision, GMDL Workshop, {ECCV}},
year = {2018}

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